The proposed book is one of a series called “A Course of Higher Mathematics and Mathematical Physics” edited by A. N. Tikhonov, V. A. Ilyin and A. G. Sveshnikov. The book is based on a lecture course which, for a number of years now has been taught at the Physics Department and the Department of Computational Mathematics and Cybernetics of Moscow State University. The exposition reflects the present state of the theory of differential equations, as far as it is required by future specialists in physics and applied mathematics, and is at the same time elementary enough. An important part of the book is devoted to approximation methods for the solution and study of differential equations, e.g. numerical and asymptotic methods, which at the present time play an essential role in the study of mathematical models of physical phenomena. Less attention is paid to the integration of differential equations in elementary functions than to the study of algorithms on which numerical solution methods of differential equations for computers are based.